One more escaped due to some other reason not known. Apart from these if there were any others, it was known only to the lady and her companion. During the trial it was revealed that her jarans men who have illicit relation with ladies included 30 Namboodiris, 10 Iyers paradesi Brahmins, Tamil Brahmins or Pattars , 13 ambalavaasis, people in the services of temples like those who clean the inner prakaram, those who play drums or perform kathakali, koothu etc outside the Sree Kovil but inside the compound of the temple and 11 Nairs.
Dhatri was given the punishment of Brashtu along with the available male members of the 65 tried. What happened to her afterwards was not known. There are several gossips about her life after the Brashtu. It was said that the companion of Dhatri broke down at her master's fate and tried to persuade Dhatri to go to Mannanar's asylum and there were several of them waiting for accommodating her as a wife or sister.
Dhatri refused and faded into obscurity may be by her own choice. There was a very strong gossip that she went to an Anglo Indian man who was a railway employee at Pothannur railway station. People firmly believed that Dhatri lived up to the age of 80 somewhere around Coimbatore in Madras State present Tamilnad State. The Ancestral House of Tatri Kutty It is the story of a real life event that happened between the years and when the communication and transport facilities were at a very low level.
It is an unimaginable daring action in a kugramam a backward village with no infrastructure at that time Ezhumangad known more popularly as Arangotukara in Palakkad District of Kerala State by a lady of most orthodox community of that time. The centre stage of the story is a house in the junction of two villages divided by a village road. This village is a beautiful village surrounded by paddy fields, few hills scattered around with plenty of trees, 4 temples, ponds and tanks.
The house is known as Kalpakasseri Illam Mana — houses of Namboodiri , a house of a rich zamindar landlord of the area at the time of the story. The house was in a compound of about 4 — 5 acres of land and as any house of rich family was a sprawling one with all facilities available at that time.
I belong to the same village and my ancestral house is the 4th house on to the South of the then Kalpakasseri Mana.
This mana was right opposite to the village main temple of Karthyayani Devi on the Arangode side. During my childhood the mana was already nonexistent and only some ruins were seen in the land. There were the remains of some idols worshiped by the family members of the Mana, two wells one for the kitchen and other for outside use and two ponds one for the ladies of the house and the other for men of the family.
The house was on higher level of about 2 — 3 feet from the road level. My knowledge of the subject is through hearsay, over hearing conversations and some literature on the subject. My father being very strict and short tempered, I could not ask him and get any detail. However I used to be with him whenever, I do not have to study for school and I could get some information by gossip or through conversations between him and his friends about Dhatr's life.
Then there were discussions between self and my school mate friends from what they have overheard through their parents or others. Because it is on hearsay and I do not want to hurt anybody who may be directly or indirectly connected with the characters or incidents involved in this article I have made some slight changes in the names and narration of the facts. There is no record available about her birth or childhood so not much is known about these aspects o f her.
But one thing with definite date in her case is the Brashtu order which was on the 13th of July, In the days of lack of communications to complete the activities she could have taken about 30 to 40 years and adding her age at marriage at 13 the birth year might be between and There was a gossip that when she was born her father Kalpakasseri Ashtamoorthi Namboodiri was going towards Arangotukara from Pattambi side.
Those days the nearest centre to the village was Pattambi where there is a railway station perhaps with one train in a day between Madras now Chennai and Mangalapuram Mangalore and one or two buses from Palakkad to Calicut or so via Pattambi. When he was crossing the Bharatha Puzha from Pattambi to Thirumittakode en route to Arangode he got the news of the birth of his daughter and on consultation of an astrologer, he was informed that the birth was at an inauspicious time and the girl will be responsible for a calamity involving the destruction of his family.
After three years another girl was born, the younger sister to Dhatri Kutty.
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After that Dhatri lost the love and affection of her mother who was fully engrossed with the new born child. Because of the astrological prediction the family members were a bit apprehensive of the girl. The girl was extraordinary intelligent and wanted to study in school. Those days girls were not allowed to go out alone especially of the orthodox Nampoodiri community. Hence allowing her to study was not agreed to by her parents in spite of her obstinate pressure.
Being intelligent and ingenious she learned to read and write to some extent from brothers. She was having good appreciation of fine arts and had learned something about Kathakali, music etc. Those days girls are married at a very young age of 11 years onwards. Accordingly Dhatri Kutty was married off at a very young age to Chemmanthatta Kuriyedathu Raman Namboodiri Aphan Nampoodiri of Mukundapuram Taluk a much older man, almost the age of her father.
Thereafter there was not much information about her for some time. The ladies of landlords' will have at least one maid servant cum companion daasi - thozhi exclusively to be with the lady. Dhatri Kutty had one Nair lady companion who was very loyal to her and was helping her without question in anything Dhatri wanted.watch
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Through the help of her thozhi Dhatri had arranged a secluded place to have sexual relations with males other than her husband. Dhatri was a very highly intelligent lady now. Her husband was a much older man who had other wives. He may not have been able to satisfy her sexual needs. Besides Dhatri could not fulfill her ambition to study and lead a normal girl's life due to the ill arrangements of the system.
She used to gather information of all well known people of the society of not only of her villages of Ezhumangad — Arangotukara but nearby and far way also. She was such a beautiful lady that anybody would like to possess her. Since she is already married people will be happy to try to spend some time with her and have sex with her for at least once if there is any possibility. Such being the case she had no difficulty in getting the men she wanted to be in bed or otherwise with her.
She had arranged to get most of the well know people of her time who are grown up enough to visit her for sex.
It is not known whether she had sexual relation with anybody for a second time. It had gone on for a long time and a number of persons had contact with her at the place she had arranged for this purpose through her thozhi. She being a very intelligent lady, it is not possible for anybody to say whether she had really sex with all or she had fooled some of them without having sex.
That fact was known only to her and the persons concerned. The numbers of persons involved were so many and it was known only to her and her maid. What I understood about her mode of communication was that she used to get information about famous people throughout the length and breadth of Kerala through her companion.
She used to send her maid to establish contact with the persons one by one and invite them. Since the Nampoodiri ladies are seen only by their fathers till marriage and their after only by their husbands, remaining unknown is not much difficult especially when the community had the system of not seen and not being seen between the Antharjanams and men other than father up to marriage and there after only by the husband.
And with the system of mara hide kuda umbrella used by Nampoodiri ladies to cover upper parts of body and face from others it will not be difficult to go out with the maid unknown. In the place where she was operating as a prostitute she used all her skills so satisfy the men who go to her. But none of them knew her as an antharjanam of Dhatrikutty for the above mentioned reasons. Then one day an old man from her community came to her either by knowing the possible flick through somebody or as per her way of inviting the males.
He had a nice time and spent some time talking to her that he would like to have her permanently for himself if possible. At the end of it she opened her veil which she was wearing most of the time outside her house. The man had the shock of his life on seeing her as she was none else than his wedded wife.
He was shaken out of his wits, ran out shouting which made people to gather. Those days the tilt of society against the women was much stronger especially for the upper caste Namboodiri Brahmin ladies. Her husband wanted her to be punished. For trial of such illicit or illegitimate sex of Nampoodiri ladies there is system of trial known as 'Smartha Vicharam' where with the permission of the ruling Raja of the area, the learned Brahmins of 3 or more in numbers will intimate the charges against the lady concerned and give her a chance to reply on the matter.
In overwhelming majority of cases the ladies get excommunicated from the society which is known as Brashtu out casting. The family of the ladies will send her out of the house and do the last rites irikke pindam — irikke means while living and pindam means doing last rites too dead persons to her as if she is already a dead person. After this Brashtu she is no longer considered as human being. She will be addressed as if she is an object like 'sadhanam' or 'it' 'that' etc.
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After that anything may happen to her. There may be some vulture like males waiting to take chance or there were some institutions where such ladies were being accommodated. The owners of these institutions known as Mannanars have immunity from Brashtu. If the lady comes through a particular gate she is taken as wife and if through the other gate she is treated as a sister.
Mannanars are from a royal sect of Thiyya community that ruled some parts of Malabar between Kannur and Kasargod. The Mannanars are supposed to have been following Buddhism. They used to give refuge to Antharjanams Nampoodiri ladies who were declared outcaste in a Smarthavicharam. Since the Mannanars follow Buddhism they have no problem with Brashtu and more over they consider themselves as Royals where they only decide things for them.
It is a bit difficult to accept this as the Chakyars like the ambalavaasis and close proximate people will not be allowed to give such asylum of the Nampoodiri ladies. It was not know whether Dhatri was taking any money for the service she was giving to the men and where she was conduction these services. Possible connections with the known persons The chief of the Smarthans committee of five members was the late Jatavedan thirumeni as the Nampoodiris and the thampurans etc were addressed at that time. The famous writer Madambu Kunhikuttan is the grandson of the famous late Jatavedan Nampoodiri.
His two uncles, that is the brothers of Jatavedan Nampoodiri were also involved with the sexual act and were given the order of Brashtu. It is rumoured that one Gopala Menon who was given the verdict of Brashtu escaped to the then Ceylon present Sri Lanka to avoid the stigma and shame. Another person's name which was doing the round was the super heroine of Malayalam films. Some people feel that Sheela is the granddaughter of Dhatri Kutty.
Dhatri was particularly targeting persons who are supposed to be of very high moral standing, famous personalities, well known scholars of that time, musicians, kathakali artists and other prominent high society people of that time from the area under the erstwhile Cochin state and Malabar to sleep with her. She had clinching proof of identification marks on the covered parts of the persons, and in many cases letters written by these people to her. It was being rumoured that the then celebrated Kathakali artists Kavunkal Shankara Panicker, Kaattalathu Madhavan Nair, Panangavil Narayanan Nambiar, Achutha Poduval etc were in the list and they had to leave their professions and their places.
Consequences to her families and her Jarans Her father committed suicide after the incident. Other members of the family fled out of the village and were lost touch with anybody from the village or any nearby areas. The property was abandoned for some years and later slowly some unscrupulous people encroached and appropriated the same. During my childhood it was a deserted land though in the centre of the village right opposite to the main temple and people were afraid of going into the ruined place. There were some deities of the family in abandoned condition with no one daring to do anything about it.
There was a huge tree with the first branch about 40 feet high from ground, and the thickness may about 20 - 30 feet which was later sold to the boat making people.
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There was a peepal tree at the back end of the compound from which some birds, owls and another variety known at that time as Kalan Kozhi. The owl makes noise in the night which is fearsome at that time as there was no battery torch or electricity. The noise of the Kalan Kozhi is still more frightening. There was a belief that when someone is about to die or killed the Kalan Kozhi will make the cry to alert the coming of the Kalan Yaman and for this reason it got its name.
Then there are some whose names were not disclosed or not allowed to be disclosed by abruptly closing the trial after the 65th man of Dhatri's list. The social origins of the kerala school. In A passage to infinity: Medieval Indian mathematics from Kerala and its impact pp. Joseph, George Gheverghese. SAGE Knowledge. Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile so that you can create alerts and save clips, playlists, and searches.
Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature. The medieval period of Kerala's history stretches over seven centuries from the age of the Perumals of Mahodayapuram ninth to twelfth centuries to the formation and establishment of the swarupam 1 organisations thirteenth to seventeenth centuries.
This period was marked by various historical developments, such as the spread of agricultural and village communities, a substantial rise in local as well as overseas trade, and the increasing struggle among the swarupam s themselves to become the dominant power. It was also during this period that foundations were laid for what came to be known as the Kerala School of mathematics and astronomy.
She received these artistic skills from her father itself. The drama forms she liked included Thiruvathira, Nadodi Nirtham, etc. She used to perform on stage not only in the school but also at the state level. Apart from these, Angel was also an active sports girl. Shotput and Disc Throw were her favorite sport.
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She was also a participant of Scouts and Guides in her school. She also received a special award from our ex-president Smt. Pratibha Patil while she was the member of Scouts and Guides. Angel is an active actress in Malayalam film and TV industry. She started her career and entered the industry with a Malayalam album. She got this chance while pursuing graduation to act under Millennium Audios for the album Ranabhoomi. Ranabhoomi was all about politics and parties. The songs were loved, and so was her acting. She also won the best actress award in the album category by Film City Magazine.
She debuted in the television industry through the TV Aahante Makkaal in Next, she worked in show Vrindavanam displayed on Asia net TV. Angel also performed in one of the famous serial Amala, aired on Mazhavil Manorama. Directed by Rajiv Nedum Kandam, she played the role of Neerja. With her excellent acting in every show she got, she always received positive reviews from the critics and audience as well. Bio coming soon Asuran Experience With Dhanush Sir!
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